Monday, October 10, 2016

The nature of essential hypertension

Essential or primary hypertension was considered to have no obvious cause. It comprises 90%-95% of all hypertension, with secondary hypertension (renal, endocrine and vascular) comprising the remainder.

The concept that essential hypertension has its root in childhood can be inferred from blood pressure tracking data, which demonstrate that children with elevated blood pressures will continue to have elevated blood pressures as adults.

In developed countries, the risk of becoming hypertensive during a lifetime, defined for adults as pressures greater than 140/90 mm Hg, exceeds 90%.

Essential hypertension is commonly associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as ageing, being overweight, insulin resistance, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.

There is a strong genetic component in essential hypertension. Essential hypertension in human is also associated with increased sodium transport in the renal proximal tubule and medullary thick ascending limb, although increased distal tubular transport has also been reported.
The nature of essential hypertension
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