Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Teenager with hypertension

Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases in children, especially in adolescents. The current prevalence of hypertension in children is estimated to be about 1-5%, with higher rates among minority adolescents1-3.

Primary hypertension (PH) also referred to as essential hypertension, previously considered a disease of adulthood, has now become increasingly common in the pediatric. Risk factors for primary hypertension include overweight and obesity, male sex, older age, high sodium intake, and African American or Latino ancestry.

The prevalence of hypertension is much higher among overweight and obese children with estimates of 4% to 14% and 11% to 23% respectively.

In recent years, it has been increased, mainly due to a rise of obesity, having a significant impact on the level of blood pressure. Obese children are three times more likely to develop hypertension than their non-obese counterparts. The etiology of obesity related hypertension has been linked to sympathetic hyperactivity, insulin resistance and vascular structure changes.

There is evidence that childhood hypertension can lead to adult hypertension. Hypertension is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults, and the presence of childhood hypertension may contribute to the early development of CAD.
Teenager with hypertension
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