Friday, October 15, 2021

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of Hemorrhagic Stroke. It occurs when a blood vessel either on or inside the brain suddenly begins to leak blood. The blood is released into the subarachnoid space, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

The location and amount of bleeding is different from person to person, and this is why people have very different symptoms. Some people feel as if they have had “the worst headache of my life” and nothing else. Headache caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured aneurysm is one of the most deadly, with a median case-fatality of 27–44%.

Others may have more symptoms such as:
• Dizziness
• Weakness
• Speech Changes
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Confusion
• Drowsiness (sleepiness)
• Loss of consciousness

Complications of SAH include rebleeding, hydrocephalus, delayed cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm, and seizures. The likelihood of rebleeding is increased by measures that rapidly lower intracranial pressure.

80% of SAH cases are caused by a ruptured brain aneurysm. A brain aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel caused by a weakness in the blood vessel wall, usually at a point where the vessel branches off.

As blood passes through the weakened vessel, the pressure causes a small area to bulge outwards like a balloon.

Alternate etiologies include perimesencephalic hemorrhage, which has a benign course, as well as arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistula, arterial dissection, mycotic aneurysm, and cocaine abuse.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage

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