Friday, March 19, 2021

Flavonoids and hypertension

Plant compounds (polyphenols and flavonoids) have been reported to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension.

Flavonoids can be found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, in coffee, wine, or tea, with significant antioxidant effects. Flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanidins are the main members of the group of natural phenolic compounds called flavonoids.

It is well known that nitric oxide (NO) from the endothelium plays a crucial role in regulating vascular tone and blood pressure. Nitric oxide causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation by activating soluble guanylate cyclase29 and by increasing cyclic guanosine 30 ,50-monophosphate (cGMP), which inactivates the release of intracellular calcium.

Flavones, a subgroup of luteolin-rich flavonoids, exert their antihypertensive effect by signaling and activating the cAMP/protein kinase A cascade, which will further activate NO synthase, the final result being the increased concentration of endothelial NO. Through this mechanism, vasodilation takes place, a process modulated by potassium and calcium channels.

A number of studies have shown that consumption of fruit, vegetables, wine and tea may protect against stroke, for which hypertension is the major risk factor.

Flavonoid’s antioxidant activity is well established, and epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between flavonoid intake and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Flavonoids and hypertension

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