Monday, December 20, 2021

Essential hypertension - 95% of all cases of hypertension

Essential hypertension remains a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more than 80 mmHg. There is a strong positive and continuous correlation between BP and the risk of CVD (stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure), renal disease, and mortality, even in the normotensive range.

Essential, primary, or idiopathic hypertension is defined as high BP in which secondary causes such as renovascular disease, renal failure, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronism, or other causes of secondary hypertension or mendelian forms (monogenic) are not present.

The pathophysiology of essential hypertension depends on the primary or secondary inability of the kidney to excrete sodium at a normal blood pressure. The central nervous system, endocrine factors, the large arteries, and the microcirculation also have roles in the disorder.

Essential hypertension accounts for 95% of all cases of hypertension. Essential hypertension is a heterogeneous disorder, with different patients having different causal factors that lead to high BP. Hypertension affects more than 29% adult Americans and is the most common reason for office visits to physicians in the United States.

Essential hypertension is currently understood as a multifactorial disease arising from the combined action of many genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors.

A number of factors increase BP, including obesity, insulin resistance, high alcohol intake, high salt intake (in salt-sensitive patients), aging and perhaps sedentary lifestyle, stress, low potassium intake, and low calcium intake. Furthermore, many of these factors are additive, such as obesity and alcohol intake. Lifestyle changes are recommended for all patients: weight loss, exercise, decreased sodium intake, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and moderation of alcohol consumption.

The prevalence of hypertension is expected to increase largely due to the epidemic of obesity and the aging population in the United States.

In case the blood pressure is extremely high, there may be certain symptoms to look out for, including: severe headaches, nosebleed, fatigue or confusion, vision problems, chest pain, difficulty breathing, irregular heartbeat, blood in the urine.
Essential hypertension - 95% of all cases of hypertension

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